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2Mar/16

在 Mac 下用 Homebrew 安装 MySQL

Posted by Nick Xu

在 Mac 下用 Homebrew 安装 MySQL, 网上的教程倒是很多,不过大多数都很默契地雷同。如果稍有点定制要求,就无从下手了。

我先也不免俗,从基本的开始:

一、首先安装 Homebrew

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$ ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.github.com/mxcl/homebrew/go)"
$ brew install git
$ brew update

二、安装 MySQL

用下面的命令就可以自动安装了:

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$ brew install mysql

如果想让 MySQL 开机自动启动,可以如下操作:

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$ mkdir -p ~/Library/LaunchAgents
$ ln -sfv /usr/local/opt/mysql/*.plist ~/Library/LaunchAgents
$ find /usr/local/Cellar/mysql/ -name "homebrew.mxcl.mysql.plist" -exec cp {} ~/Library/LaunchAgents/ \;
$ launchctl load -w ~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.mysql.plist

设置 MySQL 用户以及数据存放地址

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$ unset TMPDIR
$ mysql_install_db --verbose --user=`whoami` --basedir="$(brew --prefix mysql)" --datadir=/usr/local/var/mysql --tmpdir=/tmp

好了,可以启动了

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$ mysql.server start

另外的参数还有 {start|stop|restart|reload|force-reload|status}

大部分的介绍就在此结束了。

三、更详细的设置

配置文件 my.cnf

作为用惯了 Linux 的人, 一定会去 /etc 下找 my.cnf, 让你失望了,这个文件要自己建立。如果看一下帮助

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$ mysqld --help --verbose

就会发现系统会按这个顺序去找 my.cnf

  1. /etc/my.cnf
  2. /etc/mysql/my.cnf
  3. /usr/local/etc/my.cnf
  4. ~/.my.cnf

一般网上大虾都会这么教小白建立 my.cnf, 其实这个默认的文件里面几乎没什么内容。

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$ sudo cp $(brew --prefix mysql)/support-files/my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf

所以,还是自己老老实实参考 linux 下的配置文件吧。

my.cnf (my.cnf.txt)download
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#
# The MySQL database server configuration file.
#
# You can copy this to one of:
# - "/etc/mysql/my.cnf" to set global options,
# - "~/.my.cnf" to set user-specific options.
#
# One can use all long options that the program supports.
# Run program with --help to get a list of available options and with
# --print-defaults to see which it would actually understand and use.
#
# For explanations see
# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/server-system-variables.html

# This will be passed to all mysql clients
# It has been reported that passwords should be enclosed with 
# ticks/quotes escpecially if they contain "#" chars...
# Remember to edit /etc/mysql/debian.cnf when changing 
# the socket location.
[client]
port        = 3306
#socket     = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock

# Here is entries for some specific programs
# The following values assume you have at least 32M ram

# This was formally known as [safe_mysqld]. Both versions 
# are currently parsed.
[mysqld_safe]
#socket     = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
#nice       = 0

[mysqld]
#
# * Basic Settings
#

#
# * IMPORTANT
#   If you make changes to these settings and your system uses 
#   apparmor, you may also need to also adjust 
#   /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.mysqld.
#

#user       = mysql
#socket     = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
port        = 3306
#basedir    = /usr
datadir    = /usr/local/var/mysql
#tmpdir     = /tmp
skip-external-locking
#
# Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on
# localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure.
bind-address        = 127.0.0.1
#
# * Fine Tuning
#
key_buffer          = 16M
max_allowed_packet  = 16M
thread_stack        = 192K
thread_cache_size   = 8
# This replaces the startup script and checks MyISAM tables if needed
# the first time they are touched
myisam-recover         = BACKUP
#max_connections       = 100
#table_cache           = 64
#thread_concurrency    = 10
#
# * Query Cache Configuration
#
query_cache_limit   = 1M
query_cache_size    = 16M
#
# * Logging and Replication
#
# Both location gets rotated by the cronjob.
# Be aware that this log type is a performance killer.
# As of 5.1 you can enable the log at runtime!
#general_log_file        = /var/log/mysql/mysql.log
#general_log             = 1

log_error                = /usr/local/var/mysql/MacBook15.local.err

# Here you can see queries with especially long duration
#log_slow_queries   = /var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log
#long_query_time = 2
#log-queries-not-using-indexes
#
# The following can be used as easy to replay backup logs or 
# for replication.
# note: if you are setting up a replication slave, see 
#       README.Debian about other settings you may need 
#       to change.
#server-id          = 1
#log_bin            = /var/log/mysql/mysql-bin.log
expire_logs_days    = 10
max_binlog_size     = 100M
#binlog_do_db       = include_database_name
#binlog_ignore_db   = include_database_name
#
# * InnoDB
#
# InnoDB is enabled by default with a 10MB datafile in /var/lib/mysql/.
# Read the manual for more InnoDB related options. There are many!
#
# * Security Features
#
# Read the manual, too, if you want chroot!
# chroot = /var/lib/mysql/
#
# For generating SSL certificates I recommend the OpenSSL GUI "tinyca".
#
# ssl-ca=/etc/mysql/cacert.pem
# ssl-cert=/etc/mysql/server-cert.pem
# ssl-key=/etc/mysql/server-key.pem

# Query Caching
query-cache-type = 1

# Default to InnoDB
default-storage-engine=innodb

[mysqldump]
quick
quote-names
max_allowed_packet  = 16M

[mysql]
#no-auto-rehash # faster start of mysql but no tab completition

[isamchk]
key_buffer      = 16M

错误日志

错误日志默认会存在数据目录下,也就是上面所定义的 /usr/local/var/mysql/,如果 Mac 电脑名字是 MacBook,那日志的全路径就是 /usr/local/var/mysql/MacBook.local.err

让别的电脑访问数据库

取消下面两个文件中关于绑定 127.0.0.1 的语句
/etc/my.cnf

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bind-address = 127.0.0.1

~/Library/LaunchAgents/homebrew.mxcl.mysql.plist

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<string>--bind-address=127.0.0.1</string>

就我个人而言,不需要 MySQL 自启动,所以只要在 /etc/my.cnf 改一下就好了。

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2Mar/16

用gzip/gunzip备份,压缩数据库

Posted by Nick Xu

缘起:公司服务器上数据库越来越大,以前备份数据时将数据库整个dump出来,然后用tar czvf压缩备份,还原时用tar zxvf解压缩,每次都作这种事情的确很烦。

浏览PostgreSQL文档时,看到介绍数据库备份部分的内容时,找到一个不错的办法可以直接将数据库dump出来并自动压缩,还原数据库也可以从压缩文件直接还原到数据库,原来数据库dump出来大概50多M的plain text文件压缩后只有不到7MB,非常利于网络传输,且原理并不复杂,只用到了Linux的gzip/gunzip和管道命令而已。

MySQL:

Ruby代码  收藏代码
  1. # Backup
  2. mysqldump -u username -p dbname | gzip > outfile.gz
  3. # Restore
  4. cat outfile.gz | gunzip | mysql -u username -p dbname

PosgreSQL:

Ruby代码  收藏代码
  1. # Backup
  2. pg_dump dbname | gzip > outfile.gz
  3. # Restore
  4. cat outfile.gz | gunzip | psql dbname

还可以远程备份/还原,拿PosgreSQL举例:

Ruby代码  收藏代码
  1. pg_dump -h host1 dbname | psql -h host2 dbname

这种用法虽然基础,但确让我又一次体会到了Linux/Unix下面的工具,作一件小事,并把他做好这个原则。自己写代码模块的时候,习惯把关联功能集成在一起,比如一个encrypt模块,我会把加密/解密两个方法成对写成一个scope中,且其他人大抵也多是如此操作,合乎常理呀。但是Linux下面就把压缩,解压缩用两个程序来处理(gzip/gunzip),然后用管道把他们串联起来,然后就可以去执行一些匪夷所思的任务。赞叹

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